Instructional Design / Development


Clarifying the need and defining the requirements the training program should achieve.

This requires:

  • Understanding what the training needs to accomplish (business need, performance gap, etc.)

  • Understanding the audience (who they are, what they know, etc.)

  • Identifying strengths, weaknesses, barriers, challenges, and opportunities

  • Identifying design and development factors (ie. scope, environment, timelines resourcing, budget etc.)


Determining how to most effectively develop learners’skills (identified in Analysis) and prepare learners to apply those abilities. Design involves:

  • Selecting appropriate intervention for achieving the objectives (training vs. intervention)

  • Choosing the appropriate communication medium

  • Structuring the instructional material for the training program

  • Incorporating delivery strategy (mastery, discovery, etc.)


Converting design into deliverables:

  • Classroom:
    Lesson plans, slides, lecture notes, handouts, instructor guide, supporting materials, learning activities, questions, exercises, answer key etc.

  • Self-study:
    Workbooks, eLearning modules, online tutorials,  video course content, online help

  • Reviews:
    Pilot tests, technical reviews, production reviews


Making the training program available to the intended learners by:

  • Ensuring learner awareness through program promotion, updates, and communication

  • Establishing enrollment, acquiring physical/virtual facilities and required resources

  • Tracking learner progress and providing assistance

  • Recording learner completion and administering evaluations


Evaluation involves assessing whether learners’ mastered skills in training and  sustained that mastery over a long period of time through the 4 levels of effectiveness (Kirkpatrick):

  • Reaction

  • Learning

  • Transfer

  • Business Results